Sea anemones (reproduce only by cell division, called mitosis).
Hydra (they have both a sexual (meiosis) and an asexual life, so can compare the two).
Conclusion; there is no mandate in biology to age
What was Mom’s age when you were born?
How could you start out at 0 years old when she gave you cells she had lived with for decades?
What was your grandmom’s age when your mom was born?
You now see that you are descendant from a long line of non-aging germline cells.
Conclusion; there is no mandate in biology for a sexual animal’s cells to age
In flat worms (C. elegans) germline cells send “an order” to triple methylate genes in somatic cells to turn off their repair systems, which saves organismic energy, but which also starts aging. The writer postulates a similar occurrence in humans around the time of puberty to start aging in humans.
Conclusion; there is no mandate in biology for somatic cells of sexual animals to age.
a) During times of calorie restriction, the time is not right for having babies, so sexuality is turned off and repair is turned on, so you do not age, when calories come back and babies are born you then have extra years to take care of the babies born with the new calories.
b) There is a 3 X variance of the rate of aging in humans (DW Belsky 2015) some human individuals are aging at a rate three times faster than other human individuals.
c) Somatic cell division prior to full DNA repair locks in DNA damage. This is a slight complexity to our story since this locked in DNA damage cannot be repaired and if in certain locations can be a cause of cancer. Repair systems try to hold off cell division for this biological reason.
Conclusion; the repair mechanisms of somatic cells can be turned on to stop their aging.
Experiments in 2000 show there is no life extension with calorie restriction without sirtuin enzymes, thus sirtuin enzymes are necessary for repair and age reversal.
Conclusion; the general mechanism of somatic cell repair has been found.
The main aging theories of the past were never proved wrong, but they individually never proved sufficient to explain aging either. The calorie restriction theory now shown to be sirtuin dependent, the free radical theory is now shown to be about reduction/oxidation balance and the methylation theory now described as epigenetics all are important in understanding aging as are other theories. Taken together these theories give an understanding of the decision switch that turns cellular repair on and off.
Conclusion; biological regulation sometimes needs to see patterns to make effective decisions.
a) Energy depletion (sirtuins need energy depletion to turn on and stay on)
High NAD+ ( a co-substrate for sirtuin enzymes, no NAD+, then no sirtuin activity)
High cAMP (caffeine in coffee make this stay around) (cAMP accelerates sirtuin activity)
b) Reduction/oxidation (REDOX) balance (sirtuins need reduction to turn on and stay on)
CD-38 is turned off with reduction, so it does not degrade NAD+ and NMN
Thiol (a sulfur that senses REDOX balance) reduction is needed to keep sirtuins active
Reduction is needed to keep the methylation pathway going to SAM, not glutathione
c) Methylation (sirtuins need methylation to turn on and stay on)
SAM availability (it provides the methyl of methylation)
Nicotinamide’s methylation is needed to stop nicotinamide from its “feedback loop” turning off of sirtuins enzymes
Epigenetics (correct methylation of DNA allows correct expression of genes)
Conclusions; changes “seen” in biological patterns can lead to biological choices by organisms.
Initial study results: 12 males from 46 to 66 years of age on Egaceutical’s triple therapy EGA® were shown (in addition to many other aspects of age reversal) to reduce their interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and when compared to results from the Y. Arai 2015 study this indicated they had reduced their biological age, increased their predicted life span, and they had elongated their physical and mental health-span by reducing/reversing their progression towards the “diseases of aging”.
Conclusions; the initial study’s result data supports the theory that human sirtuin enzymes can be turned on and kept on with EGA® therapy long enough to cause significant age reversal in humans.
a) Exercise (oxidative preconditioning)
1 hour of running adds 7 hours of life
Strength (each muscle needs its own attention, use them or loose them)
2 times per week good, 1 time per week not enough
Intensity of workout
Light sweat (good)
Are unable to carry on a conversation (better)
5 strenuous hours/week (gets most of exercise benefit)
Some benefit was seen from even short intense spurts of exercise
b) Sleep (a time for repair)
Problems with first non-REM slow-wave sleep of night when age
4 REMs (6.5 hours) or 5 REMs (8 hours) per night usually required
c) Diet (a more varied diet is healthier, also has a correlation to the microbiome in gut)
i) Limiting the eating time period during the day
It appears that you cannot repair your cells when you are digesting your food, your body chooses to do one or the other, so not eating allows your body to repair your cells. Fasting is difficult, so better to have a daily routine of not eating at all. Center eating on 1 pm to 2 pm. 12 hours is better than 24 hours of eating this has been shown in mice, 8 hours of eating is probably better than 12, and 4 better than 8?
ii) Quantity of diet
Correct amounts of nutrients are needed. Too little or too much of any nutrient is bad. Example water: too much or too little can kill you. Fat (leads to energy via the TCA cycle) satiates better than sugar (glucose leads to energy via glycolysis, fructose has other properties), excess sugar is bad in regards to aging.
iii) Quality of diet
Need sugar for the brain but fat (TCA) pathways are better to have on than glycolysis in regards to cellular repair.
Protein is needed. Cooking often helps to get out nutrients and allowed humans benefits. Things that once lived are better than man-made nutritional constructs. Things that have not deteriorated since death are better nutrients. Younger plants/animals are better than older in regards to nutrients. Although fruits are made by plants to be eaten, the plant itself, if not engineered by humans, will have toxins to keep animals from eating it.
d) Daily cycles and your biological clock
NAD+ peaks twice a day and troughs twice a day; each 12 hours apart. Ex: 8 am and 8 pm NAD+ peaks (may vary with a morning person or an evening person). About 2/3 of cell activity is correlated with the swings of your two daily clock cycles. Greater swing (peak height vs. trough depth) of two cycles per day is better for health. Human mother’s milk has NMN and NAD+ and its quantity is dependent on lactation time, so mom’s milk’s composition is dependent on her biological clock and her baby’s.
e) Emotions (happiness is ½ genetic and ½ dependent on your life’s present compared to your life’s last 3 to 6 months, so it is all about you and your subconscious brain’s analysis of your life). Energy is more likely to be allocated (for repair) if the prediction for the future is good (i.e. you are happy). Past exercise may be a surrogate for a prediction of a good future to the subconscious leading to mental happiness.
i) Positive (estimation that the present is better than the past 3 to 6-month average). Shown to elongate life.
ii ) Negative (estimation that the present is worse than the past 3 to 6-month average). Shown to shorten life.
Conclusions; Scientific theories remain if they continue to be supported by all (unbiased) data.
a) In the 2015 Y. Arai study, aging, the diseases of aging and death starts when, but not before, the predictive variables IL-6 and TNF-α increase, thus this study predicts that aging, the disease of aging, and death due to aging will not happen if IL-6 and TNF-α levels are not allowed to rise past the low levels of youth.
b) Death by injury only (car crash is #1) leads to 9,000 to 50,000-year life expectancy
Conclusions; new data leads to new theories and the need to rethink previous unproven assumptions
…so fasten your seat belt you’re in for an exciting ride.